You should outline drawings if you want to progress, it is the foundation for getting proportions right.
Outline drawings are the scaffold for your finished work and they help you understand how things fit together. Beginners will find it easier to draw the basic shapes first and add detail later.
There are no rights or wrongs, but there are proven, tried and tested, methods that will speed up your learning and get results. Why reinvent the wheel?
What is an Outline Drawing?
An outline drawing is usually the initial sketch before any shading or coloring has been added. The outline can be used for reference points when adding more detailed elements at a later stage.
Outlining a drawing allows you to focus on one element at a time without being distracted by premature detail. This means fewer mistakes and faster learning!
An outline drawing can be a preliminary sketch or a final drawing. Very accomplished artists have the ability to cut through the detail and recognize the most important lines that convey the message.
It is an enviable skill. Few artists can distill a drawing down to its elemental lines and retain its impact
The most important thing about outlining for beginners is not to rush through it. Take your time with this process because it’s going to make all the difference to the end result.
Are There Different Types of Outline Drawings?
These are 5 common ways to make an outline:
Freehand Line Drawing
This is perhaps the most obvious method that comes to mind. An artist uses his or her skills to draw by eye alone. The artist uses their judgment to calculate proportions and sketches an outline roughly.
The artist will lightly sketch several lines to gauge which one is the most accurate and emphasizes that particular line.
Blind Line Drawing
Is an exercise to help to develop and coordinate the artist’s eye and hand. The idea is to draw the subject without ever looking down at the paper. In theory, the artist can learn to draw with reasonable accuracy by sight alone.
It is supposed to teach a beginner how to see what is really in front of them as opposed to what they think they know already.
A crude example would be a child drawing one stick man behind another. Most kids will draw one figure floating above the other. That is drawing what they know. When they get older, they see that the front figure obscures the other or appears slightly bigger. They are beginning to draw what they see.
Continuous Line Drawing
Continuous line drawing is an exercise whereby the artist attempts to draw their subject without lifting their pen or pencil from the page.
If it has a purpose, it is to train the artist to adjust their lines from heavy to light and still produce an accomplished drawing. In theory, it should increase the artist’s finesse and dexterity.
Mechanical Line Drawing
Mechanical line drawing is the precision mapping of a line without room for error. It’s usually associated with architecture, industry, or engineering. Mechanical or technical drawing aims to represent all parts of an object true to scale and in their true size relation.
Traced Line Drawings
Most tracing lines are strict guidelines used for the sole purpose of getting the proportions right as quickly and accurately as possible. They have little to no artistic merit. They are used to speed up the process of mapping out a piece of work that otherwise would take a great deal of time.
The lines are typically single, crude, and stilted. They are not intended to be seen beyond the initial stages.
A gridded image is equally accurate but produces lines with more fluidity. Both methods are used as the first stage of a more complicated piece of work.
Why is Drawing an Outline Important?
Outlines help the artist to see and gauge proportions. The whole purpose of the outline sketch is to construct accurate guidelines at the earliest stage of the drawing. The outlines are the anchor that holds the rest of the drawing together.
If the artist spends time sketching the simplest shapes to scale, and to the right size in relation to each other, they can move on to define the outline with confidence. The strength of the drawing at this stage will determine the quality of the finished work.
If the artist decides to skip this stage, in favor of drawing more interesting detail, they invariably regret it later on.
Typical portrait errors are eyes not aligning, the lips being too close to the nose, or being off-center. They are all preventable mistakes that can and should be avoided.
How Do You Create Outline Drawings?
How Do I Start An Outline Drawing?
Keep it simple. If you have trouble deciding which way something goes then start by drawing the simplest shape first. Drawing is all about breaking down basic shapes into progressively smaller shapes until you get to the finer detail.
A confident artist will continually adjust these building blocks at the beginning. The artist will cross-reference key features, check alignment, and measure distances, to get the proportions right.
A beginner can be forgiven thinking that an expert has no need to double and triple-check anything, but that is not the case. Professionals get the basics right.
Sketch out an underdrawing before you commit to any stronger lines. There is no need to rub out the lines that go astray. Leave them where they are and use them to help you find the right line.
It’s trial and error.
Once you’ve got your basic structure down, you can safely add the details.
What Tools Do You Need For Creating an Outline Sketch?
There are plenty of options, you aren’t limited to using graphite pencils. You can use charcoal, carbon pencils, or pen and ink. I used to enjoy using pigment liner pens for permanent black lines, and apply watercolor over them. Urban sketchers love this method.
There are no rules as such, it depends on why you are drawing and the results you want to achieve. If you are making rapid notes in a sketchbook, you can draw with a ballpoint pen if you want to, I do that if I suddenly get an idea I didn’t want to forget.
Plenty of artists make a light sketch with a graphite pencil before defining the lines with a pen. When the ink is dry you can erase the pencil.
How Can I Improve My Outline Drawings?
The classic way of adding interest to your contour drawing is to vary the line width, add breaks to the line, and vary the tone.
You can create the illusion of depth with a fine liner pen by using strong bold lines in the foreground and thin lines to indicate the background. With graphite pencils, you can use a softer and lighter grade of pencil.
You can experiment with the fluidity of the line. Some lines will be too rigid and will benefit by adding some artistic flourish.
Further Reading: 15 Ways to Get Better at Drawing
A street scene can look very dull if you are too accurate. Sometimes it is better to add a few quirky angles, even if it’s bending the truth.
I used this technique all the time when I drew street scenes. I doubt if I ever drew a vertical lamp post, gates were always higgledy-piggledy, trees were always leaning.
Buildings are boring if you draw them perfectly. A photographer will use a wide-angle lens and distort their image, there is no reason why an artist has to be different.
Can You Add an Outline to a Painting?
You bet you can. Just as you can make a line drawing and paint it in, the reverse is true, you can outline a finished painting. There are times when a painting is perfectly fine but lacks any punch or drama. Outlining the image can bring it to life.
I must mention Arthur Rackham, one of the most brilliant illustrators of his day. He was famous for illustrating children’s literature and fairy tales. He combined a bold use of line combined with a mastery of watercolor.
Both were very accomplished artists, and both were famous for their colorful line drawings.
Can You Use Reference Photos to Create Outline Drawings?
Why not? It’s the easiest way to learn and for some subjects, like birds and animals, it’s hard to do it any other way.
Take my advice and take your own photographs, not only will you avoid any copyright issues, but it’ll also give you much more satisfaction knowing the picture is truly your own work.
Further Reading: Is Drawing From Photos Bad?
Select an image and apply a grid. If you are old school, you can make a photocopy and draw the grid by hand, or add a grid layer using an image editor such as Photoshop or Pixlr.
Draw a very light grid on your paper. You will need to erase the lines so don’t press too hard and score the page. Then draw the outline, box by box.
What’s the Difference Between a Line and an Edge in Drawing?
Purists might admonish an artist for the overuse of hard lines. My old teacher certainly taught us that there were no outlines in a good drawing, only edges. He argued that there are no real lines in nature, only the edge of a tone.
I appreciate that he had a point, but not a very convincing one. He might’ve been technically right, but the illusion of lines exists and I have never been bound or limited by such a rule.
There are times when the transition from one tone to another is subtle, which becomes apparent when you convert a color image into greyscale. Two different colors, sitting side-by-side, with the same tonal value, can merge together as a black and white image.
The only solution is to increase the contrast and/or add an outline.
Can You Learn Outline Drawing by Tracing?
Not easily. You will have an outline, what else can you have? but a very primitive one. There is nothing about tracing that gives life to a line. It is stilted and rigid.
Tracing will give you a boundary for adding color or detail, but even then an inexperienced had will still go wrong.
Further Reading: Is it Cheating to Trace your Art?
Most people who can’t draw, can’t trace either. Let me explain.
Tracing an image may look accurate but an inexperienced artist tends to trace the inner line of an image. The eyes, for instance, will be ever so slightly smaller than they are in real life. An artist who knows their craft will compensate for any errors as they occur.
If you know what you are doing, tracing is a practical way to get an outline on paper quickly. It’s only a shortcut, not a substitute for drawing.
A learner is well advised to practice outline drawing without tracing.
Most artists use outline drawings as the primary structure for a painting or as the first stage of a more detailed pencil drawing, but in the hands of a master, a line drawing is an art form in its own right.
I’ve heard people say that they can paint but they can’t draw. Well, abstract expressionists might have you believe that drawing is redundant, but if you want to create art that is more than making colorful patterns, you can’t afford to ignore it.
Outlining a drawing is part and parcel of the drawing process. If you want to make representational art you will have to learn how to construct accurate proportions and draw outlines.
There is no other way.
Now take a look at these articles:
- Can You Copy Art and Sell a Painting of a Painting?
- How to Find Your Own Art Style. It’s Easier Than You Think
- How to Draw Realistic Shadows
- Can Anyone Learn to Draw?
- Can You Draw With Mechanical Pencils?